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Fig. Mangroves and seagrass provide habitat for important commercial and recreational species, help stabilize the seafloor, and filter pollutants Seagrass habitat helps to support a thriving, multi-million dollar recreational fishery including flats fishing for bonefish and tarpon. The main model output is predicted wind speed in kilometers per hour at the height of 10 m for each cell and tropical cyclone that has since 2000 affected at least 1 of the following countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama. ↵*Ref. Mangroves in Central America may be particularly well suited for providing protection. QnAs with Enquye Negash, Zeresenay Alemseged, and Jonathan Wynn. Data deposition: The data and code used in this paper have been deposited in the open Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) repository, https://doi.org/10.3886/E115611V1. However despite their numerous benefits, mangrove forests were once considered wastelands of little value, and forests all over the world have been cleared for aquaculture, agriculture, urban infrastructure and coastal development. The average value of nightlights in 2000 is 5.1, with an SD of 8.4. We find that, in areas with less than 1 km of mangrove width, a category 3 hurricane can decrease nightlights by roughly 24%. Click here to sign in with The estimated coefficients highlight that the benefits of mangrove protection occur among cells with 1 km or more of mangrove width in their path to the coast. Mangroves are utilized in many parts of the world as a renewable resource. This finding is broadly consistent with other estimates of mangrove protection, which indicate that 2 to 7 km of mangrove width would be needed to fully attenuate storm surge for the hurricanes that make up the bulk of our sample (categories 1 to 3).§ Moreover, our estimates suggest that this effect is economically relevant. Data on the distribution of mangroves come from 2 sources. They also provide economic benefits to … Mangroves are recognized as a provider of a variety of products and essential ecosystem services that contribute significantly to the livelihood of local communities. 33 has a literature review), including the downturns generated by hurricanes (22⇓⇓–25). Relation between satellite observed visible-near infrared emissions, population, economic activity and electric power consumption, The Economics of Hurricanes in the United States (NBER Working Paper No. “With mangroves, there is social equity. Their dense roots help bind and build soils. We focus on Central America because hurricanes occur frequently; because its coastline is highly exposed to storm surge (1), which is one of the most damaging features of hurricanes; and because coastal areas have historically sustained mangrove forests (27) capable of providing protection. These major processes in turn support healthy fisheries, medicines, fibers, wood, and fuels. and J.J.M. Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Economic Growth and Job Creation, Hon. "The magnitude of benefits provided by mangroves are all the more essential for our coastal communities as they experience heightened risk of flooding and extreme weather conditions. Mangrove forests have received considerable attention because their aerial root and canopy structure makes them capable of reducing wave action (8⇓⇓–11), wind velocity (12), and storm surge (13⇓⇓–16). Some of the more direct threats to mangrove communities have emerged from development proposals requiring reclamation of mangrove land, for example airport runway construction, port expansions and road development. The economic and socio-economic impacts of mangrove management and mangrove restoration can be assessed using cost-benefit analysis (Spurgeon, 1998). The valuation was calculated using the total economic value framework The data and code used in this paper can be found in the open Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research repository. and Terms of Use. Mangroves protect coastal economic activity from hurricanes. 5 and calculate the width of mangrove, as measured in 2000, along the closest path to the coast. Do mangroves provide an effective barrier to storm surges? Each composite covers Central America and contains information on 604,473 1-km2 grid cells. As noted above, mangroves provide a wide range of vital ecosystem services, which have an equally wide range of value. Specifically, we show that we find very similar results using a wide range of alternative assumptions for the inference of SEs, the construction of the hurricane damage function, the calculation of mangrove width, and the model specification. Abstract. Table 1 shows, consistent with previous literature, that hurricanes have considerable short-run negative effects on local economic activity. By comparison, areas with a mangrove width of 1 km or more are unaffected. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Total Economic Valuation Figure 2.2 Net welfare gain associated with an increase in the area of mangroves under open-access regime for off-shore fisheries Figure 2.3 Net welfare gain associated with an increase in the area of mangroves under private property regime Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Author contributions: A.d.V. 2A plots the point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of these models. Our estimate of β is negative and statistically significant at the 5% level. By comparison, the coefficient for storm surge-prone areas is sharply estimated and clearly indicates that hurricanes have considerable negative effects in this area. 39, a review; ref. We add to this literature by providing empirical estimates of how mangroves moderate the relationship between hurricane strength and local economic damages. To rule out that any protection benefits of the mangrove are derived because mangroves grow in areas that are naturally more sheltered (for example, areas that lay in a steeper continental shelf), we begin by excluding from the analysis areas that have not historically supported mangrove habitats. 2B plots the distribution of mangrove width for each bin, the box represents the interquartile range, the whiskers are the minimum and the maximum, and the dot is the average value. We use this map to identify areas that have historically supported mangrove habitats. In this paper, we show that wide mangrove belts in Central America have the potential to mitigate the disruption to economic activity generated by hurricanes. The parameter β measures the impact of hurricanes on nightlights under the assumption that these shocks are exogenous. 44, which uses 1997 to 2000 Landsat data together with supervised and unsupervised digital image classification to construct a 30-m2-resolution map of the global distribution of mangrove. Mangroves provide nursery habitat for many commercial fish and shellfish, and thus contribute to the local abundance of seafood. However, the true economic value of mangrove diversity and natural resources is difficult to measure and important ecological processes and functions undervalued. 35(2), pages 135-141, November. The research, published last month in the journal Scientific Reports, finds that without mangroves, flood damage costs would increase by more than US$ 65 billion a year, and 15 million more people would be flooded. The study brought together a team of scientists from the engineering, insurance, and conservation sectors to quantify the effectiveness of mangroves in reducing flood risk to people and property. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no The size of the coefficient indicates, for example, that nightlights in cells that experience strong category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2, wind speed of 208 km/h) decrease by 0.81 units (≈−4.055×0.2).‡ Since the average nightlight was 5.1 in 2000, this effect roughly corresponds to a 16% decrease in our proxy of economic activity. Image credit: Aurora Fernández Durán (photographer). In the first 3 models, we discretize the mangrove width variable into various bins that correspond to its q quantiles and estimate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity for each bin: model 1 uses q = 2 and is labeled with stars, model 2 uses q = 3 and is labeled with squares, and model 3 uses q = 4 and is labeled with triangles. Specifically, the estimated f coefficient is statistically significant and nearly identical to that of column 1 in Table 1, while the lagged coefficient is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0. Economic valuation of mangroves and decision–making in the Pacific. This article contains supporting information online at https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1911617116/-/DCSupplemental. All errors and opinions are our own. Do equations for groundwater flow refer to water density? Consideration of the economic value of these natural systems is critical in planning and development along Florida's coastline, where mangroves currently occupy only a fraction of their historical extent because of development and other hydrologic modifications. The estimated coefficient of −5.96 indicates that, when a cell experiences, for example, category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2), nightlights decrease by ≈1.2 units (−5.96×0.2) or a 23% reduction. Genetic insights could help shore up populations of a rare dog species thought to be nearly extinct in the wild. List of various diseases cured by Black Mangrove. An alternative coastal defense intervention is the conservation and restoration of natural habitats that can provide protection against cyclones (7). In each model, we discretize mangrove width into various bins that correspond to its q quantiles. Ronnback, Patrik & Primavera, Jurgenne H., 2000. 33), and their high spatial resolution is ideal because the economic impact of tropical cyclones has been shown to be highly localized (22, 25). One important implication of these findings is that only large-scale mangrove conservation efforts are likely to provide a benefit in terms of protection. The first line of defense for Hurricane Dorian is the shoreline, Elephants found to have the highest volume of daily water loss ever recorded in a land animal, Sediment cores from Dogger Littoral suggest Dogger Island survived ancient tsunami, Study of river otters near oilsands operations shows reduced baculum strength, A possible way to measure ancient rate of cosmic ray strikes using 'paleo-detectors', Thermonuclear type-I X-ray bursts detected from MAXI J1807+132. The f damage index provides an informative measure of wind damages and potentially, of overall damages because it is also correlated with damage from excess rainfall and storm surge. We then take the resulting variables and include them in Eq. By fully exploiting the high spatial resolution of our measure of economic activity, potential hurricane destruction, and mangrove protection, we reduce the risk that our estimates of hurricane impact will be “aggregated out” (ref. Mangroves are essential to maintaining water quality. This study further strengthens the Nature Conservancy's commitment to protecting and restoring mangroves as an important investment and risk reduction strategy," said Temperince Morgan, executive director of the Nature Conservancy in Florida. We restrict the sample to cells that have non-0 nightlights in at least 1 y during our sample period. With coastal challenges created by growing populations, burgeoning development, and climate change, risks to people and property from flooding and storm surge are on the rise. 27 in their shortest path to the coast. This model uses an asymmetric Holland equation that has been calibrated for Central America. Consequently, an important avenue for future research is the identification of areas that should be prioritized for conservation or restoration. Mangroves and other blue carbon ecosystems provide many services that people benefit from . To measure mangrove benefits, we estimate the economic value of mangrove forests for flood risk reduction in 20 km study units. In Lee and Collier Counties, closest to where Hurricane Irma made landfall on the Florida mainland, mangroves are estimated to have prevented losses of $802 million and $580 million respectively. Approximately a quarter of the cells in our sample experience non-0 wind speed. Names of Black Mangrove in various languages of the world are also given. An important concern is that our heterogeneity results are not driven by mangrove protection but rather, by factors related to distance to the coast. Furthermore, the survival of juvenile fish is aided by the long residence time of water amongst the mangroves, which is facilitated by the mangrove roots. To measure the degree of mangrove protection, we follow ref. Nightlights have been shown to be a good proxy of economic activity (reviewed in ref. Medical Xpress covers all medical research advances and health news, Tech Xplore covers the latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, Science X Network offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. ↵†We exclude the year 2000 from our sample to interpret mangrove width in 2000 as a predetermined covariate in the next section. 1 provides a visual representation of the mangrove width calculation in the coast where the largest event in our sample made landfall (Hurricane Felix). In other parts of the world, people have utilized mangrove trees as a renewable resource. Fish are abundant in mangroves and many coastal communities. The findings make a compelling economic case for protecting and restoring mangroves as natural defenses for risk reduction. Perhaps one of the most commonly identified services provided by mangrove communities is the provision of a nursery habitat for juvenile fish. Since its inception in 2014, Mikoko Pamoja Community Based Organisation has been able to ensure conservation of 117 ha of mangroves in the Gazi bay. Researchers reveal key details of how the heat shock protein mechanism disassembles the α-synuclein amyloids linked to Parkinson’s disease. Our findings contribute to the literature on the storm-protective services of mangroves (ref. Last, there are 2 important caveats of this analysis concerning the benefits of mangrove conservation and restoration over a longer time horizon. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. Mangrove wood is water resistant, hardy, and resists insects, and has been used in making furniture and even houses and boats. 34. Our nightlights dataset is composed of 22 satellite–year composites for the period 2000 to 2013. 12813), The rising tide: Assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones, Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data (Version 1.3, updated by UNEP-WCMC), Mangroves as protection from storm surges in a changing climate, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1911617116/-/DCSupplemental, https://ngdc.noaa.gov/eog/dmsp/downloadV4composites.html, US racial inequality: A pandemic-scale problem, Journal Club: Machinery of heat shock protein suggests disease interventions. Quantifying the value of mangroves as natural coastal defenses is crucial for incentivizing their conservation and restoration for the benefit of nature and people25. The estimated reduction in damages from mangroves is of a similar magnitude to that found in model 1. Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth. B plots the distribution of mangrove width for each bin, and C plots the distribution of distance to the coast for each bin. The report goes further to show the annual benefits from mangroves across many storms. Nonetheless, because storm surge is often considered one of the most damaging aspects of hurricanes, we further investigate whether coastal lowlands are disproportionately affected by hurricanes.

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