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Cross-reactivity to legumes is possible; consider allergy potential with chickpea, peanuts, soybeans, lentils, lupin, green peas, or coriander. Fenugreek is an herb long used in alternative medicine. Fenugreek also known as Methi in Hindi, has its botanical name as Trigonella Foenum-Graecum. Wide-ranging dosages and differing preparations have been used in clinical studies. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Still it is beneficial to know the common name of all garden plants. Each of the 8 individual climacteric subscale scores was also significantly improved with the fenugreek extract (P < 0.01). A member of the bean family, fenugreek grows as an erect annual with long, slender stems reaching 30 to 60 cm tall. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Common English name: Fenugreek, bird ‘s foot, Fresh Menthi, Greek -clover, Greek Hay, Sicklefruit, Cooper’s Clover Etymology: Fenugreek is derived from foenum- graecum, which in turn gives the scientific name of this plant.Foenum – graecum means ” Greek hay “. Overall, the number of severe liver injury cases was significantly higher from supplements than conventional medications (P=0.02). What is fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) ?Characteristics of fenugreek. Consider therapy modification.56, 57, 58, 59, Salicylates: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of salicylates. Perennial Flowers + Moneyplant. Additionally, the 2-hour glucose pooled estimate from 7 trials was significant (P < 0.001). Available for Android and iOS devices. At the end of the study period, mean total menopausal symptom scores were significantly lower in the extract-treated group (−15.19) compared to placebo (−3.71; P <0.001), as well as compared to baseline. 11. Please I’m still searching for the local name of Jujube leaves in … Avoid if an allergy to any member of the Fabaceae family exists. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Trees-Acacia. Mild and transient GI effects are most commonly reported; hypoglycemia, micturition, dizziness have also been documented within a range of doses and variety of preparations. In another study, micturition and dizziness were reported within 24 hours of acute administration of a 40 mg/kg single dose of aqueous leaf extract.90 A trial evaluating the safety of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds at a dosage of 300 mg twice daily over 6 months reported no hematological or biochemical effects, including effects on liver and kidney function tests, over placebo.33 In contrast, animal studies have repeatedly documented histopathological and hematological changes in the liver and kidney.90, Fenugreek should be used with caution in individuals taking thyroid hormones because animal studies suggest that it may alter T3 and T4 levels.66, 67, Allergy to fenugreek is recognized; asthma, rhinitis, sneezing, excessive tearing, bronchospasm, numbness of head, facial angioedema, wheezing, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been documented in several case reports. Fenugreek is a plant also known as Alholva, Bird's Foot, Bockshornklee, Bockshornsame, Chandrika, Fenogreco, Foenugraeci Semen, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Greek Hay Seed, Hu Lu Ba, Medhika, Methi, Sénégrain, Trigonella, Woo Lu Bar, and other names. Fenugreek can be used as a vegetable, as seeds, or as dried herbs. You can also know the Fenugreek Scientific Classification which will help you gain the botanical information about the plant. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Monitor therapy.60, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. In all 10 studies, significant effects were observed on fasting blood glucose (FBG) compared with controls (P < 0.001) in patients with diabetes (types 1 and 2) but not in participants without diabetes; doses less than 5 g/day were unlikely to produce effects. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), ASHP (updated 23 Oct 2020) and others. No significant effects were found on low-density lipoprotein or high-density lipoprotein levels overall. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary supplements for dysmenorrhea identified only low or very low quality studies with very small sample sizes. It is used both as an herb, from the leaves of the plant, and as spice, from the seeds. However, there are a few things to be on the lookout for. For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl.im/av47d. In the botany, fenugreek is a small annual leguminous herb belonging in the Fabaceae family, genus: Trigonella. Animal studies have also demonstrated antifertility effects in both males and females. it made sourcing for it more easy for me. HbA1c was also significantly reduced compared with controls (P = 0.009); however, fasting serum insulin levels were not significantly different. Fenugreek oilextracted from the fenugreek seeds is also used for diabetes control, muscle spasm, enh… The mucilages of fenugreek's and several other plants' seeds have been determined and their hydrolysates analyzed.11 Fenugreek gel consists chiefly of galactomannans, characterized by their high water-holding capacity. The plant has an erect growth habit and a strong, sweet aroma. While other benefits are being studied, today fenugreek is most widely used and researched for two purposes: as a galactagogue, something that can help a breastfeeding mother increase her bre… Avoid if an allergy to any member of the Fabaceae family exists. Fenugreek has been a part of Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine for a very long time. Wide-ranging dosages and differing preparations have been used in clinical studies. Along with the scientific name of Fenugreek, know the scientific names of other plants too. It has also has been recommended for the promotion of lactation. A standardized hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds is available, and a trial evaluated its use in patients with Parkinson disease at 300 mg twice daily for a period of 6 months. The primary inclusion criterion was last menses between 12 months and 3 years; although, the authors noted ambiguously that the last menstrual period in participants of both groups was noted to have occurred before 12 months. Pratia. Bleeding may occur. Maple syrup urine disease, a disorder of branched-chain amino acid catabolism that results in abnormal accumulations of amino acids and their metabolites, was suspected in a healthy infant born to a mother who ingested a paste prepared from fenugreek seeds early in labor.53 Fenugreek, maple syrup, and the urine of patients with the disease share a characteristic odor originating from the common constituent sotolone. Animal studies have demonstrated abortifacient effects in females and antifertility effects in males and females; whereas congenital malformations have been observed in humans as well as animals. Much research on fenugreek has been conducted in India and other countries, focusing on its potential for the treatment of diabetes. Studies have included T lymphoma cells, squamous cell, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer, among others.24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 75. Explore Fenugreek Information in detail along with its common name and scientific name. [Source 47)] Fenugreek seeds. Fenugreek actually prevents the aggregation of platelets together, which is the mechanism by which one of the most common blood thinners, aspirin, works as well. To prevent accidental overdose, oral doses for humans should not exceed 350 mg/kg (21 g/60 kg). It is cultivated and used all around the world, but mainly in India. Fenugreek Herb Notes / Side Effects Latin Name. Every plant has different names in different languages. The quality of the majority of studies was low with only 3 being scored as high quality.89. Each pod contains about 10 to 20 small, yellowish-brown, angular seeds, which are dried to form the commercial spice. Yellow Wild Indigo. In a screening study, fenugreek exhibited activity in a monoamine oxidase type A assay but did not demonstrate affinity for the serotonin transporter.30 In a model of sciatic nerve injury in rats, an extract of fenugreek restored motor nerve conduction but not nerve ligation.31 In a model of Parkinson disease in rats, fenugreek seed extract demonstrated neuroprotective effects and reversed motor-related symptoms.32, A small clinical study evaluated the effect of adjuvant standardized hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds in patients with Parkinson disease. Common Name: Fenugreek Scientific Name: Trigonella foenum-graecum Other Names: Bird’s Foot, Bockshornklee, Greek Hay Seed Description Fenugreek is an annual plant belonging to the Fabaceae family. Other names for the herbal spice include Greek hay, Greek hay seed, bird’s foot, Greek clover, foenugreek, sicklefruit fenugreek, hu lu ba, alholva, … The availability of only 1 study for pre-diabetes limited the usefulness of disease subgroup analysis. It’s a common ingredient in Indian dishes and often taken as a supplement. Common effective dosages are around 1000mg. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Consider therapy modification.56, 57, 58, 59, Vitamin K antagonists: Fenugreek may enhance the anticoagulant effect of vitamin K antagonists. The plant bears grey-green, tripartite, toothed leaves, and white or pale yellow flowers appear in summer and develop into long, slender, sword-shaped seed pods with a curved, beaklike tip. Fenugreek may lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels in people with diabetes. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -, http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20110123656, http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm091048.htm. The seeds also contain the saponin fenugrin B. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties have yet to be fully explored. Serrano Pepper. It is methi in Hindi, hulba in Arabic, moshoseitaro in Greek, uluva in Malayalam, shoot in Hebrew, and dari in Persian. The seeds also yield as much as 8% of a fixed, foul-smelling oil. Historically, Fenugreek was used mostly for therapeutic purposes. Studies in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have used from 1 g/day of a hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek up to 100 g/day of germinated fenugreek seeds, whereas seed powder 1.8 to 2.7 g taken 3 times daily for the first 3 days of menstruation was used in primary dysmenorrhea (total daily dose, 5.4 to 8.1 g); 500 mg twice daily of a standardized extract was studied for management of postmenopausal symptoms. Scientific name: Trigonella foenum-graecum. Studies have demonstrated the cholesterol-lowering activity of fenugreek in animals, including rats and dogs.17, 35, 36, 40, 45, 46, A systematic review identified 5 clinical trials before 2003 that investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of fenugreek seeds. In North Africa, Asia, and southern Europe, fenugreek was traditionally used for diabetes and to … A 2005 study published in the Cell Biology International reported that fenugreek has protective effects against breast cancer, inhibiting “ mammary hyperplasia ” [ 19 ]. After 115 days of treatment, cataracts were diagnosed in 25% of fenugreek recipients compared with 100% of diabetic controls.51, The effects of a proprietary fenugreek seed husk extract (FenuSMART) was assessed in symptomatic menopausal women in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 88). Common Name: Fenugreek, Sicklefruit fenugreek: Family: Fabaceae or Leguminosae: USDA hardiness: 5-9: Known Hazards: The seed contains 1% saponins[240]. May increase estrogen in women. Studies in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have used 5 g/day of seeds or 1 g/day of a hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek.34, A trial in patients with Parkinson disease evaluated the safety of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds at a dosage of 300 mg twice daily over 6 months.33, Fenugreek seed powder 1.8 to 2.7 g taken 3 times daily for the first 3 days of menstruation was used in primary dysmenorrhea (total daily dose, 5.4 to 8.1 g).84, Avoid use in pregnancy. Only 1 study out of 7 showed an effect on insulin.44 Study methodology limitations exist. From my experience, even bean beetles don’t seem to realize this plant is a legume. No, fenugreek does not boost either free or total testosterone levels according to the scientific evidence at hand. While the seeds and leaves are primarily used as a culinary spice, it is also used to treat a variety of health problems in Egypt, Greece, Italy, and South Asia. Bleeding may occur. Last updated on Dec 20, 2018. It develops over time, according to use, look, and lore. Limited clinical trial data suggest fenugreek extracts may have a role in the therapy of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and Parkinson disease; however, studies were limited and provided inconsistent dosing information, making it difficult to provide recommendations. turmeric, echinacea, saw palmetto, milk thistle, Ginkgo Biloba. When ingested in culinary quantities, fenugreek is usually devoid of adverse reactions.64 Mild transient GI effects (ie, dyspepsia, abdominal distention, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea) have been reported with chronic administration in diabetic patients as well as healthy adults in clinical studies and case reports with dosages ranging from 1 mg/day hydro-alcoholic seed extract for 2 months to 12.5 g fenugreek seed powder given twice daily for up to 24 weeks.2, 65, 90 Uncompensated coagulation failure in a patient with cirrhosis was believed to be attributed to coumarins from long-term, high doses of fenugreek-based porridge.91, Hypoglycemia has been reported in diabetic and healthy adults given 100 g of defatted fenugreek seed powder for as little as 10 days. Fenugreek has been documented to have uterine stimulant effects and has been used in traditional medicine to induce childbirth. This plant is called मेंथी in Hindi, Τριγωνέλλα in Greek, fenacho in Portuguese and Kozieradka in Polish. Consider therapy modification.56, 57, 58, 59, Thrombolytic agents: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of thrombolytic agents. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties have yet to be fully explored. Fenugreek (also known as Greek Hay and Fenigreek), is an herb that is commonly found growing in the Mediterranean region of the world. The common name of any plant can differ region to region. One small clinical study was conducted among patients with type 1 diabetes, and the balance was conducted among healthy participants or those with type 2 diabetes.8, 36 Most studies found a reduction of fasting blood glucose of 30 to 45 mg/dL,8, 43 and some showed a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin. Fenugreek is a plant that belongs to Fabaceae family, is also called methi in India. Avoid use in pregnancy. There are many testimonials and positive reviews by women who claim it makes their breast larger, but there’s no scientific validation of these claims. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. Bleeding may occur. Fenugreek seeds have been used in traditional medicine to augment breast milk supply.54, 92 Fenugreek has been shown to stimulate sweat production, offering a possible mechanism of action. It was used to treat digestive and respiratory ailments, and it has a long history of use in women's health—to induce labor and help with childbirth, and as a treatment for gynecological issues like painful menstruation and uterine problems. Fenugreek seed powder dosage was 1.8 to 2.7 g taken 3 times daily for the first 3 days of menstruation (total daily dose, 5.4 to 8.1 g). Seeds contain 0.1% to 0.9% diosgenin and are extracted on a commercial basis. The right fenugreek product should have descriptive and transparent supplement facts. These effects were observed at a dose as low as 100 mg/kg/day, a human dose equivalent of 16.2 mg/kg (972 mg/60 kg).17, 52, 90 In humans, congenital malformations (ie, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, cleft palate, spina bifida) have been reported in offspring of women who consumed fenugreek seeds during pregnancy.90. Fenugreek seeds, also known as methi seeds, are a common ingredient in Indian curries, as well as Turkish, Persian, Eritrean, Ethiopian, and Egyptian cuisine. Vegetables + Lamb's Lettuce. Common name of Fenugreek is the name which changes with change in the regions. Bleeding may occur. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. This form of cancer, which is common anywhere in the world, can fortunately be prevented with the help of anti-cancer foods such as fenugreek. WebMD explores the medical benefits of this seed. ---Description---The name comes from Foenum-graecum, meaning Greek Hay, the plant being used to scent inferior hay.The name of the genus, Trigonella, is derived from the old Greek name, denoting 'three-angled,' from the form of its corolla.The seeds of Fenugreek have been used medicinally all through the ages and were held in high repute among the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans for … You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. Select one or more newsletters to continue. Hence, scientific name of Fenugreek is used worldwide. Common Names. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Heterogeneity was significant for fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postload but not for HbA1c or fasting insulin serum results.83 Similar results were found with pooled data for FBG (−0.84 mmol/L; P=0.002), HbA1c (−1.16; P<0.00001), and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (−1.3 mmol/L; P<0.001) in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes compared to controls in a 2016 meta-analysis of 12 studies (N=1,173). The slightly bitter, spicy taste to the leaves tends to deter varmints and deer. It is not only used in cooking, but also used for medicinal purposes. Though it is mostly used for culinary purposes, there are also number of medicinal and beauty benefits of fenugreek powder. Fenugreek supplements do not have a specific dosage range that is known to be more effective. The C-glycoside flavones vitexin, vitexin glycoside, and the arabinoside isoorientin have been isolated from the plant. Both fenugreek fiber doses significantly lowered patient-rated hunger and calories consumed at the next meal, and the higher dose produced a significant increase in insulin area under the curve. Consider therapy modification.56, 57, 58, 59, 78, Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties). Fruits + Chicago Hardy Fig. Fenugreek seeds have been used as an oral insulin substitute, and seed extracts have been reported to lower blood glucose levels. Bleeding may occur. The use of fenugreek dates back to around 4000 BC. The name of the genus, Trigonella, derives from the Latin for "little triangle", in reference to the shape of fenugreek yellowish-white flowers. This herb may have numerous health benefits. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. There are no clinical data regarding the use of fenugreek as an antioxidant. Because of their sweet, maple-syrup like smell and flavor, fenugreek seeds are also added to artificial maple syrup, candies, ice cream, beverages, tobacco, soaps, and cosmetics. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This in turn reduces the likelihood of these clots blocking tiny blood vessels, or even larger blood vessels which are important to the brain or heart itself. In vitro studies with human cancer cell lines and experiments in laboratory animals have shown that fenugreek and certain constituents, especially diosgenin, exert growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects. Very limited evidence of effectiveness was found for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with fenugreek compared to placebo or no treatment (1 randomized clinical trial, N = 101). Bleeding may occur. Liver transplant was also more frequent with toxicity from non-bodybuilding supplements (13%) than with conventional medications (3%) (P<0.001). Allergy to fenugreek is recognized, including severe responses such as asthma, anaphylaxis, and toxic epidermal necrosis. Isolation of the biologically active components or production of a more palatable extract, which would allow greater use of the plant, have been investigated.3, Suppression of interleukin production and allergic symptoms were demonstrated in rats pretreated with fenugreek extracts.12, 13, 14 Inhibition of the arachidonic acid pathway was demonstrated in mice,15 and studies in rats with induced arthritis have found positive effects on erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total white blood cells, and C-reactive protein.14, 16, There are very limited clinical data regarding the use of fenugreek as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cross-reactivity to legumes is possible; consider allergy potential with chickpea, peanuts, soybeans, lentils, lupin, green peas,or coriander. The name Trigonella foenum-graecum is derived from Latin which means "Greek hay" because people in those days used it as a cattle fodder. Common Name of Fenugreek in other languages is an interesting information one should know. Diosgenin, a precursor used in commercial steroid synthesis, is extracted from the seeds. B., Yancey, A. M., Barnes, K. N., and Myles, T. D. The use of galactogogues in the breastfeeding mother. It should also be manufactured by a reliable company that uses GMP certified facilities and have few additional ingredients. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. Fenugreek showed greater efficacy than placebo, but further, larger trials are required to determine if fenugreek has a place in the treatment of Parkinson disease.33 A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found clinically significant beneficial changes in total and motor UPDRS scores as well as H & Y staging for 42 early Parkinson patients taking 300 mg twice daily of a standardized fenugreek extract for 6 months as a nutritional adjuvant to levodopa/carbidopa therapy.82, The galactomannan-rich soluble fiber fraction of fenugreek may be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of the seeds.3 Insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties also have been associated with the amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine, which occurs in fenugreek at a concentration of about 0.55%. Fenugreek has been used to stimulate milk production in breast-feeding mothers, but data are insufficient to determine its efficacy and safety, and the extent of transmission of fenugreek-derived constituents into breast milk is unknown. Limited clinical trial data suggest fenugreek extracts may have a role in the therapy of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and Parkinson disease; however, studies were limited and provided inconsistent dosing information, making it difficult to provide recommendations. The seeds are rich in protein, and the plant is grown as animal forage. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, fenugreek was observed to have mild and moderate inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL, respectively, in H. pylori-infected gastric cells.85, Reduction in cataract incidence was demonstrated in diabetic rats receiving an extract of fenugreek seeds and leaves. 68, 69, 70, 79, 86, 90, An outbreak of Escherichia coli–related diarrhea in France and Germany in 2011 was associated with fenugreek sprouts.71, 72 Fenugreek sprouts have also been associated with some outbreaks of hemolytic–uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe.80, 81, False diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (see Pregnancy/Lactation) has been reported in several infants who were given fenugreek-containing herbal teas.53, 73, 74 The developing nervous system in children seems to be susceptible to fenugreek toxicity as demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In healthy and diabetic animals and humans, fenugreek lowers cholesterol, blood triglyceride levels, and blood glucose levels. During roasting, a large proportion of the trigonelline is degraded to nicotinic acid and related pyridines. Fenugreek powder is the dust form of the spice and is easily available in the market. The plant thrives in full sun and in rich, well-drained soils, and has a spicy odor that remains on the hands after contact.1, 2, Fenugreek herb has been used for centuries as a cooking spice in Europe and remains a popular ingredient in pickles, curry powders, and spice mixtures in India and other parts of Asia. Delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of glucose transport have also been postulated as possible mechanisms, as well as restoration of enzymes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.8, 34 Hypoglycemic effect appears greatest for fenugreek whole seed powder, with lesser effect for the gum isolate, other seed extracts, and leaves.35, Reports of experiments in animals from the 1980s and 1990s have been published,35, 36 and studies to elucidate the mechanisms of action of fenugreek in diabetes are ongoing.37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, A lack of standardization of products tested and dosages used limits the value of the limited published clinical trials. Additionally, effects of fenugreek on lipid parameters were assessed and the pooled data revealed a significant decrease with fenugreek on triglycerides (−0.27 mmol/L; P=0.01) and total cholesterol (−0.30 mmol/L; P=0.03). Fenugreek or most commonly ‘methi‘ in Hindi is a popular spice having a strong scent and a pungent flavor. Fenugreek Thins Blood. A study conducted in 2011 evaluated the efficacy of fenugreek as a galactogogue; however, the extent of transmission of fenugreek-derived constituents into breast milk is unknown and efficacy has yet to be established.55 Compared to placebo and other galactogogues in a network meta-analysis (N=242; range, 22 to 122), fenugreek produced significantly more breast milk than placebo but not Coleus amboinicus or palm dates. Common Pests of Fenugreek – Problem: Aphids On the other hand, foenum graecum means "Greek hay" and it is thought to be assigned by the Romans who got the plant from Greece , where the fenugreek plant has been a common crop since ancient times. Fenugreek has documented uterine stimulant effects and has been used in traditional medicine to induce childbirth and hasten delivery by promoting uterine contractions. Fenugreek is a plant also known as Alholva, Bird's Foot, Bockshornklee, Bockshornsame, Chandrika, Fenogreco, Foenugraeci Semen, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Greek Hay Seed, Hu Lu Ba, Medhika, Methi, Sénégrain, Trigonella, Woo Lu Bar, and other names. Anti-implantation and abortifacient effects have been demonstrated in female rodents and rabbits, whereas reduced sperm counts and motility, genetic damage in germ cells, and toxic effects on testicular tissue were seen in male animals. I appreciate your effort to give us local names of all these plants. Fenugreek has very few problems in an organic garden. Studies in pregnant mice and rats have shown intrauterine growth retardation, fetal malformations, and increased fetal mortality related to fenugreek seed consumption and various other preparations (ie, crude non-polar steroidal fraction of fenugreek seed, fenugreek alcohol extract, fenugreek seed powder, saponin extract, decoction from fenugreek leaves). Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and Hoehm and Yahr (H & Y) staging measured at baseline and at 6 months. Fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion are increased by fenugreek administration.3 This may be secondary to a reaction between the bile acids and fenugreek-derived saponins causing the formation of micelles too large for the digestive tract to absorb. Reductions of serum cholesterol (15% to 33%) from baseline were reported in all the trials identified.47 Results from further studies conducted among patients with diabetes found equivocal results, with most reporting decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein.8, 34, 89, Antifungal and antibacterial properties have been demonstrated.17 A French patent was granted to a product containing extracts of several herbal products, including fenugreek, purported to have activity against human and animal flagellate parasites.48, Oral administration of fenugreek seed fractions and fiber products resulted in dose-dependent gastric protection similar to that of nonprescription antacid medication.17, 49, 50, 77 Because of the association of Helicobacter pylori with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, in vitro experimentation was conducted in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells with 24 medicinal plants indigenous to Pakistan to evaluate their effect on secretion of IL-8 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to assess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects.

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